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СМЕШАННАЯ КРИОГЛОБУЛИНЕМИЯ

https://doi.org/10.24884/1561-6274-2010-14-1-11-28

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Аннотация

Смешанная криоглобулинемия (СК), тип II и тип III, – это заболевание, при котором в сыворотке крови выявляют циркулирующие криопреципитирующие иммунные комплексы и которое проявляется классической триадой симптомов: пурпурой, слабостью и артралгиями. Считается, что СК – редкое заболевание, однако, истинная заболеваемость остается неизвестной. Заболевание чаще встречается в Южной Европе по сравнению с Северной Европой или с Северной Америкой. Распространенность «эссенциальной» криоглубулинемии составляет приблизительно 1:100 000 (соотношение женщин и мужчин при этом 3:1), однако, этот термин в настоящее время используют только в отношении небольшого числа случаев СК. СК характеризуется вовлечением в процесс различных органов: кожа (ортостатическая пурпура, язвы), хронический гепатит, мембрано-знопролиферативный гломерулонефрит, периферическая нейропатия, диффузный васкулит и, реже, интерстициальные поражения легких и эндокринные нарушения. Как позднее осложнение, у некоторых пациентов могут развиваться злокачественные поражения лимфатической системы и печени. СК может быть ассоциирована с различными инфекциями и иммунными заболеваниями. При отсутствии подобной ассоциации СК представляет собой самостоятельное заболевание, так называемую «эссенциальную» СК. Этиопатогенез СК окончательно не ясен. Предполагают, что инфицирование вирусным гепатитом С (HCV) играет причинную роль, однако, с вкладом генетических и/или средовых факторов. Более того, СК может быть связана и с другими инфекционными агентами и иммунными расстройствами, такими как вирус иммунодефицита человека (ВИЧ) или первичный синдром Шегрена. Диагностика основывается на клинических и лабораторных данных. Циркулирующие смешанные криоглобулины, низкий уровень С4 и ортостатическая кожная пурпура являются классическими признаками болезни. Типичной патоморфологической находкой является лейкоцитокластический васкулит с вовлечением сосудов среднего и, более часто, мелкого диаметра, который выявляется при биопсии свежих кожных высыпаний. Дифференциальный диагноз необходимо проводить с широким спектром системных, инфекционных, неопластических процессов, главным образом с аутоиммунным гепатитом, синдромом Шегрена, полиартритом и В-клеточными лимфомами. Терапия СК первой линии должна включать эрадикацию вируса гепатита С путем комбинированного применения интерферона и рибавирина. Патогенетическая терапия (иммуносупрессия, ГКС и/или плазмаферез) должна соответствовать тяжести клинических проявлений и их прогрессирования в каждом конкретном случае. При СК необходимо длительное наблюдение для своевременной диагностики и лечения угрожающих жизни осложнений. Общий прогноз хуже у пациентов с вовлечением почек, печеночной недостаточностью, лимфопролиферативными заболеваниями, злокачественными образованиями.

Об авторе

С. Ферри
Университет Модены и области Эмилия
Италия
кафедра ревматологии


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Для цитирования:


Ферри С. СМЕШАННАЯ КРИОГЛОБУЛИНЕМИЯ. Нефрология. 2010;14(1):11-28. https://doi.org/10.24884/1561-6274-2010-14-1-11-28

For citation:


Ferri C. MIXED CRYOGLOBULINEMIA. Nephrology (Saint-Petersburg). 2010;14(1):11-28. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.24884/1561-6274-2010-14-1-11-28

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