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Липопротеин(а) и заболевания почек

https://doi.org/10.36485/1561-6274-2021-25-1-31-46

Полный текст:

Аннотация

Липопротеин(а) [Лп(а)] представляет собой подкласс липопротеинов, состоящий из богатой холестерином частицы липопротеина низкой плотности (ЛПНП) с одной молекулой аполипопротеина В100, ковалентно связанной дисульфидным мостиком с уникальным гидрофильным высокогликозилированным белком, называемым аполипротеином a [апо(а)]. К настоящему времени имеется достаточно данных, чтобы рассматривать повышение уровня Лп(a) как причинный и независимый фактор риска сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний (ССЗ) и кальцинирующего стеноза аортального клапана (КСАК). Содержание Лп(a) в плазме крови может колебаться в широком диапазоне, что преимущественно определяется генетическими факторами. Повышение уровня Лп(a) затрагивает до 30 % населения во всем мире, однако данной категории липидных расстройств в настоящее время не уделяется должного внимания. Определение уровня Лп(a) не входит в стандартный липидный профиль, поэтому значительное количество лиц с гиперлипопротеи-немией (а), которые потенциально могли бы получить пользу от лечения, остается недиагносцированными. Определенные ограничения по-прежнему связаны с отсутствием стандартизированного метода измерения концентрации Лп(a) и консенсуса в отношении оптимальных его уровней в плазме крови. Несмотря на наличие ограниченных, но статистически значимых данных, свидетельствующих о благотворном влиянии его снижения на клинические исходы, нет единства представлений об оптимальных мерах нормализации уровня Лп(a) в плазме крови. Содержание Лп(a) в сыворотке крови отражает баланс между его синтезом, происходящим в печени, и катаболизмом, в котором, по мнению ряда авторов, значимую роль играют почки. Увеличение содержания Лп(a) отмечается уже на ранних стадиях хронической болезни почек (ХБП), а пациенты с нефротическим синдром имеют четырехкратное повышение Лп(a) по сравнению со здоровыми лицами. Тем не менее, до конца остается не ясным, в какой степени повышенные уровни Лп(a) будут влиять на сердечно-сосудистый риск у больных с нефропатиями. В данной статье представлены основные сведения относительно взаимосвязи между содержанием Лп(a), нарушениями функции почек и повышенным риском неблагоприятных кардиоваскулярных событий.

Об авторах

М. О. Пятченков
Военно-медицинская академия им. С.М. Кирова
Россия

Пятченков Михаил Олегович - кандидат медицинских наук.

194044, Санкт-Петербург, ул. Академика Лебедева, д. 6, Тел.: +7 (812) 5424314



А. Ш. Румянцев
Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет; Санкт-Петербургский государственный медицинский университет им. акад. И.П. Павлова
Россия

Профессор Румянцев Александр Шаликович - докторр медицинских наук, Санкт-Петербургский ГУ  кафедра факультетской терапии; кафедра пропедевтики внутренних болезней Санкт-Петербургский ГМУ им. акад. И.П. Павлова.

199106, Санкт-Петербург, 21-я линия В.О., д. 8а; 197022, Санкт-Петербург, ул. Льва Толстого, д. 6-8, Тел.: +7(812)326-03-26. Тел.: +7(812)234-01-65



М. В. Захаров
Военно-медицинская академия им. С.М. Кирова
Россия

Доцент Захаров Михаил Владимирович - кандидат медицинских наук.

194044, Санкт-Петербург, ул. Академика Лебедева, д. 6, Тел.: +7 (812) 5424314



Е. В. Щербаков
Военно-медицинская академия им. С.М. Кирова
Россия

Щербаков Евгений Вячеславович

194044, Санкт-Петербург, ул. Академика Лебедева, д. 6, Тел.: +7 (812) 5424314



А. Н. Бельских
Военно-медицинская академия им. С.М. Кирова
Россия

Профессор Бельских Андрей Николаевич - чл.-кор. РАН.

194044, Санкт-Петербург, ул. Академика Лебедева, д. 6, Тел.: +7 (812) 5424314



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Для цитирования:


Пятченков М.О., Румянцев А.Ш., Захаров М.В., Щербаков Е.В., Бельских А.Н. Липопротеин(а) и заболевания почек. Нефрология. 2021;25(1):31-46. https://doi.org/10.36485/1561-6274-2021-25-1-31-46

For citation:


Pyatchenkov M.O., Rumyantsev A.S., Zakharov M.V., Sherbakov E.V., Belskykh A.N. Lipoprotein(a) and kidney diseases. Nephrology (Saint-Petersburg). 2021;25(1):31-46. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.36485/1561-6274-2021-25-1-31-46

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